Civil Engineering is dynamic field and have various technical terms, formulas, values to remember. In this post we are going to read about 40 technical points of Steel Reinforcement that include abbreviations, formulas, that are used excessively in calculations and are a must know for every individual building their career in this stream.

So here are these-:

- Concrete cover for reinforcement-:

- Footing = 3” or 75mm
- Column = 1 ½’’ or 40mm
- Beam = 1½’’ or 40mm
- Slab = ¾
^{” }or 20mm - Stair = ¾” or 20 mm

- Weight of Steel = D^2/162.2 Kg/m.
- Weight of Steel = D^2/533 Kg/ft.
- Standard Length Of MS Bar:

- Full length of deformed MS Bar is about 40 feet (12 meter).

- TMT = Thermo-mechanical treated bar.
- TMX= Thermax Powered Bars.
- SD = Super ductile bars.
- HYSD =High yield Strength Deformed bar .
- CTD= Cold Twisted bars deform.
- Types of steel-:

- Mild steel = 250 N/mm^2 is characteristic Strength, where fy =250 N/mm^2
- HYSD (high yield strength deformed bars) where, → FE- 415, fy = 415 N/mm^2 & FE- 500, fy = 500 N/mm^2

- Minimum Numbers Of bars in a Square-shape column = 4 numbers.
- Minimum Numbers Of bars in a Round- shape Column =6 numbers.
- For Binding one ton of MS Bar = 8kg to 12kg.
- MS Bar for chair should not be less than 12mm in diameter.
- Maximum chair spacing = 1meter.
- Minimum dia. of bars used in slab = 8mm.
- Minimum dia. bars used in column =12mm.
- Minimum dia. of bars used in dowel bars = 12mm.
- Maximum dia. of bars used in slab should not exceed 1/8
^{th}of total slab thickness. - Minimum percentage of steel in column = 0.8 % of gross area of column.
- Maximum percentage of steel in column = 6% of gross area of column.
- The transverse reinforcement of column are called = Ties.
- The Transverse reinforcement in beams are called = stirrups.
- Why cover blocks are used in reinforcement –:

- To maintain specified distance between rebars and Shuttering.
- To protect steel reinforcement from corrosion.
- To provide thermal insulation.

- Lapping in Tension -: L =50D to 60D (D=dia. Of bars).
- Lapping in Compression -: L = 24D to (D= dia. Of bars.)
- of stirrups in a beam -: { Clear span/ center to center (c/c) spacing +1 }
- Minimum hook length of stirrups = 9D (90 mm).
- Deflection specifies = Temporary displacement.
- Deformation specifies = Permanent displacement.
- Why we use only steel as a reinforcement = because of Coefficient of thermal expansion.
- Stirrup’s hook angle should be 135 degrees.
- No lapping should be placed in tension zone.
- The longitudinal bars should be bent at an angle of 90 degree & bent length should not be less than 18” or 1.5 feet.
- End hook angle of longitudinal bars of column and beam should be 90 degree.
- More than 50% of bars should not be lapped in one zone.
- The length of hook should not be less than 12d where, d is the diameter of bar.
- Young modulus of steel = denoted by “Es” = 2*10^5 N/mm^2.
- Strength of reinforcement should not be less than 15% of its designated strength.
- MS bar larger than 36mm diameter should not be lapped, welding is preferred.

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